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Stéphane Lafortune
Stéphane LafortuneN. Harris McClamroch Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceElectrical Engineering and Computer Science
(734) 763-0591 4415 EECS1301 Beal AvenueAnn Arbor, MI 48109-2122
Home > Research > CPS Energy

CPS Energy

This is the wiki for the NSF CPS project CPS: Small: Energy-Aware Formal Synthesis for Supervisory Control and Information Acquisition in Cyber-Physical Systems

NSF award number: CNS-1738103. Project period: 10/01/2017 – 09/30/2021

PI: Stéphane Lafortune


This project developed theoretical foundations and computational algorithms for synthesizing higher-level supervisory and information-acquisition control logic in cyber-physical systems that expend or replenish their resources while interacting with the environment. On the one hand, qualitative requirements capture the safety requirements that are imposed on the system as it operates. On the other hand, quantitative requirements capture resource constraints in the context of energy-aware systems. These dual considerations are needed in applications of cyber-physical systems where efficient management of resources must be accounted for in the dynamic operation of the system in order to achieve the desired objectives within a given energy or resource budget.

The approach that was developed is formal and model-based. It leverages a recently-developed unified framework for supervisory control and information acquisition in the higher-level control logic of cyber-physical systems, but it explicitly embeds quantitative constraints in the solution procedure in order to capture the energy or resources expended and/or replenished by the cyber-physical system as it interacts with its environment. This generic solution methodology is applicable to several classes of cyber-physical systems subject to energy/resource constraints. Software tools were developed to facilitate the transition of these results to application domains. Overall, this project impacted both the Science of Cyber-Physical Systems and the Engineering of Cyber-Physical Systems.

The results obtained in this project also supported our efforts on the problem of opacity enforcement by obfuscation, as described at: Obfuscation Project of the UMDES Group


The publications resulting from this award have been entered in the NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) and can be obtained by searching for award number “1738103” therein, e.g., using this link.

Software Tools

The software tools developed in this project were integrated within the suite of tools contained in the GitLab repository M-DES-tools of the UMDES group at the University of Michigan. Please refer to that site.

Relevant Links

Workshop on Analysis and Control for Resilience of Discrete Event Systems at the 2021 IEEE CCD

Obfuscation Project of the UMDES Group

Workshop on Analysis and Control for Resilience of Discrete Event Systems at the 2020 IFAC World Congress

First PhD School on Discrete Event Systems at WODES 2018

IEEE CDC 2017 Workshop on 30 Years of the Ramadge-Wonham Theory of Supervisory Control: A Retrospective and Future Perspectives — Archival site


Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.